Geographic information systems (GIS) are systems developed for collection, storage, processing, access, analysis, interpretation and visualization of spatial data. GIS are the basis of geoinformation technologies (GIS-technologies), i.e. information technology processing and presentation of spatially distributed information.
GIS technology is a powerful tool for working and visual presentation of information. Using advanced features of database management systems (DBMS), being unique editors of raster and vector graphics and featuring the largest instrumentation for analytical operations, GIS are proved to be an effective means of solving problems in the field of cartography, geology, municipal management, land management, environment, transport, industry, agriculture and forestry.
According to some estimates, about 80% of all information associated with human activities has a spatial reference. For example, the work of housing and communal services requires information about the location of the service buildings, the passage of heating mains, power lines, etc., which can be represented in the form of a map. Supporting documentation (passports of objects, photographs, protocols), although it’s not displayed directly on the map, has a relationship with the map objects, which have a spatial reference. Therefore, GIS technologies are increasingly used in the modern information society, making it a convenient tool for solving several practical, scientific and educational tasks.
Metadata search system (data are searched in accordance with their description) which is invented for creation, storage, retrieval, visualization of information about availability, location and characteristics of spatial data sets of cartographic products and supporting documentation.
Structured storage of spatial data which is invented for collection, storage, analysis and alteration of the information about objects and processes in accordance with the developed model and subject area.